Nuclear Power in the USA
(Updated 22 May 2013)
- The USA is the world's largest producer of nuclear power, accounting for more than 30% of worldwide nuclear generation of electricity.
- The country's 104 nuclear reactors produced 821 billion kWh in 2011, over 19% of total electrical output. There are now 102 units operable and three under construction.
- Following a 30-year period in which few new reactors were built, it is expected that 4-6 new units may come on line by 2020, the first of those resulting from 16 licence applications made since mid-2007 to build 24 new nuclear reactors.
- However, lower gas prices since 2009 have put the economic viability of some of these projects in doubt.
- Government policy changes since the late 1990s have helped pave the way for significant growth in nuclear capacity. Government and industry are working closely on expedited approval for construction and new plant designs.
In 2011, the US electricity generation was 4344 billion kWh gross, 1874 TWh (43%) of it from coal-fired plant, 1047 TWh (24%) from gas, 821 TWh (19%) nuclear, 351 TWh (8%) from hydro and 121 TWh (2.8%) from wind. Annual electricity demand is projected to increase to 5,000 billion kWh in 2030, though in the short term it is depressed and is not expected to recover to the 2007 level until about 2015. Annual per capita electricity consumption is currently around 12,300 kWh. Total capacity is 1041 GWe, less than one tenth of which is nuclear.
The USA has 102 nuclear power reactors in 31 states, operated by 30 different power companies. Since 2001 these plants have achieved an average capacity factor of over 90%, generating up to 807 billion kWh per year and accounting for 20% of total electricity generated. Capacity factor has risen from 50% in the early 1970s, to 70% in 1991, and it passed 90% in 2002, remaining at around this level since. The industry invests about $7.5 billion per year in maintenance and upgrades of these.
There are 67 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with combined capacity of about 66 GWe and 35 boiling water reactors (BWRs) with combined capacity of about 34 GWe – for a total capacity of 101,062 MWe (see Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 1: US Operating Nuclear Reactors). Almost all the US nuclear generating capacity comes from reactors built between 1967 and 1990. Until 2013 there had been no new construction starts since 1977, largely because for a number of years gas generation was considered more economically attractive and because construction schedules during the 1970s and 1980s had frequently been extended by opposition, compounded by heightened safety fears following the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. A further PWR – Watts Bar 2 – is expected to start up in 2015 following Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) decision in 2007 to complete the construction of the unit.
Despite a near halt in new construction of more than 30 years, US reliance on nuclear power has continued to grow. In 1980, nuclear plants produced 251 billion kWh, accounting for 11% of the country's electricity generation. In 2008, that output had risen to 809 billion kWh and nearly 20% of electricity, providing more than 30% of the electricity generated from nuclear power worldwide. Much of the increase came from the 47 reactors, all approved for construction before 1977, that came on line in the late 1970s and 1980s, more than doubling US nuclear generation capacity. The US nuclear industry has also achieved remarkable gains in power plant utilisation through improved refuelling, maintenance and safety systems at existing plants.
While there are plans for a number of new reactors (see section on Preparing for new build below), the prospect of low natural gas prices continuing for several years has dampened these plans and probably no more than four new units will come on line by 2020.
In February 2013 Duke Energy's 860 MWe Crystal River PWR in Florida was decommissioned due to damage to the containment structure sustained when new steam generators were fitted in 2009-10, under previous owner Progress Energy. Its 40-year operating licence was due to expire in 2016. Some $835 million in insurance was claimed. Dominion Energy's 566 MWe Kewaunee PWR in Wisconsin was decommissioned in May 2013, after 39 years operation.
Coal is projected to retain the largest share of the electricity generation mix to 2035, though by 2020 about 49 GWe of coal-fired capacity is expected to be retired, due to environmental constrains and low efficiency, coupled with a continued drop in the fuel price of gas relative to coal. Coal-fired capacity in 2011 was 318 GWe.
Background to nuclear power
The USA was a pioneer of nuclear power development. a Westinghouse designed the first fully commercial pressurised water reactor (PWR) of 250 MWe capacity, Yankee Rowe, which started up in 1960 and operated to 1992. Meanwhile the boiling water reactor (BWR) was developed by the Argonne National Laboratory, and the first commercial plant, Dresden 1 (250 MWe) designed by General Electric, was started up in 1960. A prototype BWR, Vallecitos, ran from 1957 to 1963.
By the end of the 1960s, orders were being placed for PWR and BWR reactor units of more than 1000 MWe capacity, and a major construction program got under way. These remain practically the only types built commercially in the USA.b
Nuclear developments in USA suffered a major setback after the 1979 Three Mile Island accident, though that actually validated the very conservative design principles of Western reactors, and no-one was injured or exposed to harmful radiation. Many orders and projects were cancelled or suspended, and the nuclear construction industry went into the doldrums for two decades. Nevertheless, by 1990 over 100 commercial power reactors had been commissioned.
Most of these were built by regulated utilities, often state-based, which meant that they put the capital cost (whatever it turned out to be after, for example, delays) into their rate base and amortised it against power sales. Their consumers bore the risk and paid the capital cost. (With electricity deregulation in some states, the shareholders bear any risk of capital overruns and power is sold into competitive markets.)
Operationally, from the 1970s the US nuclear industry dramatically improved its safety and operational performance, and by the turn of the century it was among world leaders, with average net capacity factor over 90% and all safety indicators exceeding targets.
This performance was achieved as the US industry continued deregulation, begun with passage of the Energy Policy Act in 1992. Changes accelerated after 1998, including mergers and acquisitions affecting the ownership and management of nuclear power plants. Further industry consolidation is likely.
The US nuclear power industry has undergone significant consolidation in recent years, driven largely by economies of scale, deregulation of electricity prices and the increasing attractiveness of nuclear power relative to fossil generation. As of the end of 1991, a total of 101 individual utilities had some (including minority) ownership interest in operable nuclear power plants. At the end of 1999, that number had dropped to 87, and the largest 12 of them owned 54% of the capacity. With deregulation of some states' electricity markets came a wave of mergers and acquisitions in 2000-1 and today the top 10 utilities account for more than 70% of total nuclear capacity. The consolidation has come about through mergers of utility companies as well as purchases of reactors by companies wishing to grow their nuclear capacity.
In respect to the number of operators of nuclear plants, this has dropped from 45 in 1995 to 25 today, showing a substantial consolidation of expertise.
Mergers and consolidation of management
Most of the of nuclear generation capacity involved in consolidation announcements has been associated with mergers, some of which failed due to regulatory opposition.
The $32 billion merger of Unicom and PECO in 2000 to form Exelon created the largest nuclear power producer in the USA, and the third largest in the world. In December 2003, Exelon purchased British Energy's 50% interest in AmerGen, which was originally a 50:50 partnership between PECO and British Energy. AmerGen owned the Clinton, Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island 1 nuclear reactors. Exelon has 10 operating nuclear plants with 17 reactors that generated 20% of US nuclear production in 2007. A proposed merger in 2004 between Exelon, with headquarters in Ilinois, and PSEG in New Jersey was rejected by the State of New Jersey. In 2008, Exelon made a $6.2 billion takeover bid for NRG Energy, which operates the two South Texas reactors, but this was rebuffed in mid-2009. In 2011 Exelon agreed a merger with Constellation Energy, including Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, adding 5 reactors at three plants and bringing its nuclear generating capacity to almost 21,000 MWe gross. This was finalized in March 2012. EdF owns 49.99% of CENG.
In 2000, Carolina Power & Light merged with Florida Progress Corporation to become Progress Energy, which now owns five reactors in North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida. Thirty-five percent of the electricity in those three states comes from nuclear power. In 2001, FirstEnergy Corporation, based in Ohio and itself the product of a merger three years earlier, merged with GPU Inc., based in New Jersey. The successor company, FirstEnergy, operates four reactors that provide 28% of the electricity for customers in Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey.
In October 2007, TXU Corp. and Texas Energy Future Holdings Limited Partnership merged to form Energy Future Holdings Corp. The owner and operator of the two unit Comanche Peak nuclear plant is Energy Future Holdings' power generation subsidiary, Luminant.
In January 2011 Duke Energy agreed to purchase Progress Energy, and after shareholders in both companies overwhelmingly approved, this $26 billion deal was approved by federal regulators in June 2012. The combined company was set to operate 12 power reactors, the largest regulated nuclear fleet in the USA, but Crystal River was decommissioned in February 2013, reducing this to 11.
Another means of consolidation has been via management contracts. The Nuclear Management Company, a joint venture formed in 1999 by four Midwest utilities, was approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a nuclear operating company. It took over operation, fuel procurement and maintenance of eight nuclear units (4,500 MWe) at six sites, which continued to be owned by the utilities, each with 20% of NMC. These remained responsible for used fuel and decommissioning. As with mergers, the main drivers for NMC were cost reductions and streamlined operations. However, with sales of plants achieving consolidation in that way, only two plants (three reactors) – Monticello and Prairie Island – remained with NMC and these had the same owner. Accordingly the operating licence was transferred back to the owner and NMC was incorporated into Xcel Energy, the parent company, in 2008.
In 2012 Exelon took over management of Omaha Public Power District’s Fort Calhoun for at least 20 years, to improve the performance of the single-unit plant. OPPD will remain the owner and licensee, but Exelon will provide management under contract, having already contributed consulting services.
In 2012, seven utilities with 13 Westinghouse PWR reactors totaling 16 GWe within the same NRC region set up the Stars Alliance LLC to rationalize their management. Stars members and their plants* are in Arizona, Texas, California, Missouri and Kansas. Stars – Strategic Teaming And Resource Share Alliance - was formerly part of a wider Utilities Service Alliance, which now comprises utilities with single-reactor nuclear power stations.
*Arizona Public Service Co., Palo Verde in Arizona; Luminant Generation Co., Comanche Peak in Texas; Pacific Gas & Electric, Diablo Canyon in California; Southern California Edison, San Onofre in California; STP Nuclear Operating Co., South Texas Project in Texas; Union Electric, Callaway in Missouri; and Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corp., Wolf Creek in Kansas.
Purchase of reactors
Acquisitions have been skewed toward plants in regions with high electricity rates due to the potential for higher profit margins if the plants' production costs can be reduced. Of the 5,900 MWe involved to mid-2000, half was associated with plants having 1998 production costs above 2.0 cents per kWh. Sellers tended to consider the higher-cost plants as potential liabilities and were willing to get rid of them for a fraction of their book value, whereas the larger utility buyers considered the plants to be potential assets, depending only on their ability to lower the production costs (see Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 2: Power Plant Purchases).
In the last ten years, there have been 19 reactor purchases, usually in states where electricity pricing has been deregulated (see Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 2: Power Plant Purchases). The plants acquired were often those with high production costs, offering the potential for increased margins if costs could be reduced. In many cases, large power companies have acquired plants from local utility companies and at the same time entered contracts to sell electricity back to the former owners. Entergy Corporation, for example, bought two reactors from New York Power Authority in 2000 and agreed to make the first 500 MWe of combined output available at 2.9 cents/kWh and the remainder at 3.2 or 3.6 cents/kWh.
Along with Exelon, Entergy is a prominent example of the consolidation that has occurred over the last decade. Originally based in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi and eastern Texas, Entergy has doubled its nuclear generation capacity since 1999 with the acquisition of reactors in New York, Massachussets, Vermont and Michigan, as well as a contract to operate a nuclear plant in Nebraska. Other companies that have increased their nuclear capacity through plant purchases are FPL Group based in Florida (four units), Constellation Energy based in Maryland (three units) and Dominion Resources based in Virginia (two units).
Representing significant international rather than simply US consolidation, Constellation Energy in January 2009 accepted the Electricité de France (EDF) $4.5 billion bid for half of its nuclear power business – more than 60% of its production. The deal gives EDF a major foothold in the USA, with the share of 3,994 MWe at Calvert Cliffs in Maryland, and Nine Mile Point and Ginna in New York. All the five reactors have been granted 20-year licence extensions, and the deal values them at about $2,250/kWe net, but including fuel. (The NY plants were bought by Constellation for $533/kWe without fuel earlier in the decade.) EDF already owned 9.5% of Constellation itself, and had committed $975 million to the UniStar Nuclear Energy joint venture which it set up with Constellation to build, own and operate a fleet of US-EPR units in North America with the "objective of leading the nuclear renaissance in the USA". In October 2010, Constellation pulled out of Unistar and sold its share to EDF for $140 million. This meant that Unistar became wholly foreign-owned, which precluded any US nuclear development at all until that changed to majority US ownership.
At the end of 1991 (prior to passage of the Energy Policy Act), there was 97,135 MWe of operable nuclear generating capacity in the USA. In March 2009, it was 101,119 MWe. The small increase conceals some significant changes:
- A decrease of 5,709 MWe, due to the premature shutdown of eight reactors, due to their having high operating costs.
- A net increase of 6,223 MWe, due to changes in power ratings.
- An increase of 3,470 MWe due to the start-up of two new reactors (Comanche Peak 2, Watts Bar 1) and the restart of one unit (Browns Ferry 1).
So far more than 140 uprates have been implemented, totalling over 6500 MWe, and another 3400 MWe is prospective, under NRC reviewc
The Shaw Group has undertaken about half of the uprates so far, and early in 2010 it said that companies are planning more uprate projects and aiming for bigger increases than in the past. It perceived a $25 billion market.Further uprate projects are in sight, many being $250 to $500 million each.
The largest US nuclear operator, Exelon, has plans to uprate much of its reactor fleet to provide the equivalent of one new power plant by 2017 - some 1,300-1,500 MWe, at a cost of about $3.5 billion. The company has already added 1,100 MWe in uprates over the decade to 2009. In addition to increasing power, many of the uprates involve component upgrades. These improve the reliability of the units and support operating licence extensions (see below),which require extensive review of plant equipment conditiond .
Florida Power & Light is adding 450 MWe in uprates to four reactors over 2011-13: 12% for St Lucie 1 & 2, and 15% for Turkey Point 3 & 4.
A significant achievement of the US nuclear power industry over the last 20 years has been the increase in operating efficiency with improved maintenance. This has resulted in greatly increased capacity factor (output proportion of their nominal full-power capacity), which has gone from 56.3% in 1980 and 66% in 1990 to 91.1% in 2008. A major component of this is the length of refuelling outage, which in 1990 averaged 107 days but dropped to 40 days by 2000. The record is now 15 days. In addition, average thermal efficiency rose from 32.49% in 1980 to 33.40% in 1990 and 33.85% in 1999.
All this is reflected in increased output even since 1990, from577 billion kilowatt hours to 809 billion kWh, a 40% improvementdespite little increase in installed capacity, and equivalent to 29new 1,000 MWe reactors.
Lifetime extensions and regulation
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is the government agency established in 1974 to be responsible for regulation of the nuclear industry, notably reactors, fuel cycle facilities, materials and wastes (as well as other civil uses of nuclear materials).
In an historic move, the NRC in March 2000 renewed the operating licences of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant for an additional 20 years. The applications to NRC and procedures for such renewals, with public meetings and thorough safety review, are exhaustive. The original 40-year licences for the 1970s plants were due to expire before 2020, and the 20-year extension to these dates means that major refurbishing, such as replacement of steam generators and upgrades of instrument and control systems*, can be justified.
* All US operating plants have analogue control systems.Duke Energy is converting its three Oconeee units to digitalcontrol systems over 2011-13.
At August 2012, the NRC had extended the licences of 73 reactors, well over two thirds of the US total. The NRC is considering licence renewal applications for 13 further units, with 17 more applications expected. In all, about 100 reactors are likely to have 60-year lifetimes, with owners undertaking major capital works to upgrade them at around 30-40 years. The original 40-year period was more to do with amortisation of capital than implying that reactors were designed for that lifespan.
Also the NRC has a new oversight and assessment process for nuclear plants. Having defined what is needed to ensure safety, it now has a better-structured process to achieve it, replacing complex and onerous procedures which had little bearing on safety.The new approach yields publicly-accessible information on the performance of plants in 19 key areas (14 indicators on plant safety, two on radiation safety and three on security). Performance against each indicator is reported quarterly on the NRC web site according to whether it is normal, attracting regulatory oversight,provoking regulatory action, or unacceptable (in which case the plant would probably be shut down).
On the industry side, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations(INPO) was formed after the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. A number of US industry leaders recognised that the industry must do a better job of policing itself to ensure that such an event should never happen again. INPO was formed to establish standards of performance against which individual plants could be regularly measured. An inspection of each member plant is typically performed every 18 to 24 months.
Preparing for new build
Today the importance of nuclear power in USA is geopolitical as much as economic, reducing dependency on imported oil and gas. The operational cost of nuclear power - 1.87 ¢/kWh in 2008 - is 68% of electricity cost from coal and a quarter of that from gas.
From 1992 to 2005, some 270,000 MWe of new gas-fired plant was built, and only 14,000 MWe of new nuclear and coal-fired capacity came on line. But coal and nuclear supply almost 70% of US electricity and provide price stability. When investment in these two technologies almost disappeared, unsustainable demands were placed on gas supplies and prices quadrupled, forcing large industrial users of it offshore and pushing gas-fired electricity costs towards 10 ¢/kWh.
The reason for investment being predominantly in gas-fired plant was that it offered the lowest investment risk. Several uncertainties inhibited investment in capital-intensive new coal and nuclear technologies. About half of US generating capacity is over 30 years old, and major investment is also required in transmission infrastructure. This creates an energy investment crisis which was recognised in Washington, along with an increasing bipartisan consensus on the strategic importance and clean air benefits of nuclear power in the energy mix.
The Energy Policy Act 2005 then provided a much-needed stimulus for investment in electricity infrastructure including nuclear power. New reactor construction got under way from about 2012, with first concrete on two units in March 2013.
There are three regulatory initiatives which enhanced the prospects of building new plants. First is the design certification process, second is provision for early site permits (ESPs) and third is the combined construction and operating licence (COL) process. All have some costs shared by the DOE.
US nuclear power reactors under construction, planned and proposede
||COL lodgement & issue dates
|Watts Bar 2f, TN
||1218 (1177 net)
||Tennessee Valley Authority
||on line Dec 2015
| Vogtle 3, GA
|1200 (1117 net)
||Southern Nuclear Operating Company
||24/7/08, COL Feb 2012
||has loan g'tee, late 2017
|V.C.Summer 2, SC
|1200 (1117 net)
||South Carolina Electric & Gas
||31/3/08, COL March 2012
||short list loan g'tee, late 2017
|Subtotal 'underconstruction': 3 unit (3618 MWe gross, 3411 MWe net)
|Vogtle* g, GA
||Southern Nuclear Operating Company
COL Feb 2012
|granted loan guarantee;
|V. C. Summer 3, SC
||South Carolina Electric & Gas
COL March 2012
|short list loan guarantee;
|Levy County, FL
||AP1000 x 2
||Duke Energy (formerly Progress Energy)
||30/7/08, COL target late 2013
|William States Lee, SC
||AP1000 x 2
||13/12/07, COL target late 2013
|Turkey Point, FL
||AP1000 x 2
||Florida Power & Light
||30/6/09, COL target 12/14
|Bellefonte 1g, h, AL
||Tennessee Valley Authority
||30/10/07 for unit 3 (and unit 4) h but COL review suspended
| Subtotal 'planned': 9 units(10,860 MWe gross), 6 COL applications
|Shearon Harris, NC
||AP1000 x 2
||Duke Energy (formerly Progress Energy)
||19/2/08, suspended 5/13
|North Anna*, VA
but expected end 2015
|Comanche Peak, TX
|19/9/08, COL target 12/14
|South Texas Project*, TX
||ABWR x 2
||Toshiba, NINA, STP Nuclear (merchant plant)
||short list loan guarantee;
|Clinch River, TN
||mPower x 2
||Westinghouse SMR x 5
||24/7/08 for EPR then cancelled, no decision re SMRs
|Calvert Cliffs*, MD
|7/07 and 13/3/08, delayed, in 2012 barred
||refused an offered loan guarantee, needs US equity;
|Grand Gulf, MS
||27/2/08 but COL application review suspended for someyears
||18/9/08, no decision to proceed but COL target late 2013
|River Bend, LA
||25/9/08 but COL application review suspended
|Nine Mile Point, NY
|30/9/08 but COL application review partially suspended
|Bell Bend (near Susquehanna), PA
||PPL merchant plant
|Blue Castle, UT
||Transition Power Development
||ESP application expected 2013
|Salem/Hope Creek, NJ
||To be decided
||ESP only 25/5/10, target late 2014
||On line 2021
|Subtotal 'proposed': 15 large units, 7 small (ca. 24,000 MWe gross), 11 COL applications to Aug 2012, including 5 suspended
|Other proposals, less definite:
|Victoria Countyi, TX
|03/9/08 but withdrawn,
Now ESP only 25/3/10, but withdrawn 28/8/12
|Piketon (DOE site leased to USEC), OH
||ESP application expected late 2013
||Alternate Energy Holdings Inc. (merchant plant)
||No credible plans
| Fresno, Ca
||Fresno Nuclear Energy Group
||US EPR x 2
||Amarillo Power (merchant plant)
As part of the effort to increase US generating capacity,government and industry have worked closely on design certification for advanced Generation III reactors. Design certification by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) means that, after a thorough examination of compliance with safety requirements, a generic type of reactor (say, a Westinghouse AP1000) can be built anywhere in the USA, only having to go through site-specific licensing procedures and obtaining a combined construction and operating licence (see below) before construction can begin. Design certification needs to be renewed after 15 years.
Designs now having design certification and being activelymarketed are:
- The GE Hitachi advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) of1300-1500 MWe. Several ABWRs are now in operation in Japan, withmore under construction there and in Taiwan. Some of these have hadToshiba involved in the construction, and it is now Toshiba that ispromoting the design most strongly in the USA.k
- The Westinghouse AP1000 is the first Generation III+ reactor to receive certificationl. It is a scaled-up version of the Westinghouse AP600 which was certified earlier. It has a modular design to reduce construction time to 36 months. The first of many of them is being built in China. Westinghouse has submitted revisions to its design, and the NRC has requested another change,so the revised design will not be cleared until about August 2011.
Reactor designs undergoing design certification or soon expected to do so are:
- GE Hitachi's Economic Simplified BWR (ESBWR) of 1550 MWe,developed from the ABWR. The ESBWR has passive safety features and is included in the proposals of several companies planning to build new reactors. GE Hitachi submitted the application in August 2005,design approval was notified in March 2011 and design certification is now expected in 2013.
- The Mitsubishi US-APWR, a 1700 MWe design developed from the design for a reactor about to be built at Tsuruga in Japan. The application was submitted in December 2007 and certification is expected to be complete in February 2016. Two US-APWR reactors have been proposed in the Luminant-Mitsubishi application for Comanche Peak, and one for Dominion's North Anna.
- The US Evolutionary Power Reactor (US EPR), an adaptation of Areva's EPR to make the European design consistent with US electricity frequencies. The main development of the type was to be through UniStar Nuclear Energy, but other US proposals also involve it. The application was submitted in December 2007 and the safety review is expected to be completed about the end of 2014. Under a revised schedule, Areva is expected to submit to the NRC, by 30 August 2013, details of how the EPR design meets post-Fukushima requirements. The 1600 MWe EPR is being built in Finland, France,and Guangdong in China.
- The Korean APR-1400 reactor, which has been sold to the UnitedArab Emirates. Following pre-application meetings, a design certification application is expected in mid 2013 and is likely to conclude in 2017.
- The Russian VVER-1200 reactor which is being built at LeningradII, Novovoronezh II and the Baltic plants may be submitted for USdesign certification through Rusatom Overseas, according to Rosatom.
In addition, several designs of small modular reactors areproceeding towards NRC design certification application:
- An application is expected in 2013 for the Westinghouse SMR, a 225 MWe integral PWR based on the AP1000. Ameren Missouri is proposing up to five units for its Callaway site, instead of using the EPR.
- The Babcock & Wilcox mPower reactor is an integral 125 MWe PWR which has attracted funding support from DOE. B&W and TVA plan to submit an application in 2015 for design certification and licensing to construct up to four units at Clinch River. B&W expects both design certification and construction permit in 2018, and commercial operation of the first two units in 2022.
- A demonstration unit of the 160 MWe Holtec SMR-160 PWR (with external steam generator) is proposed at Savannah River with DOE support, and a design certification application is likely late in 2016. South Carolina and NuHub also back the proposal.
- A demonstration unit of the NuScale multi-application small reactor, a 45 MWe integral PWR is also proposed for Savannah River with Fluor and DOE support.
A fuller account of new reactor designs, including thosecertified but not marketed in the USA, is in the information pageonAdvancedNuclear Power Reactors, or for the small modular reactors,in the page on Small NuclearPower Reactors.
Early site permit
The 2001 early site permit (ESP) program attracted four applicants: Exelon, Entergy, Dominion and Southern, for Clinton,Grand Gulf, North Anna and Vogtle sites respectively - all with operating nuclear plants already but room for more. In March 2007,Exelon was awarded the first ESP for its Clinton plant in Illinois,after 41 months processing by the NRC and public review. The NRC then awarded ESPs to Entergy for its Grand Gulf site, Dominion for North Anna, and Southern for Vogtle. No plant type is normally specified with an ESP application, but the site is declared suitable on safety, environmental and related grounds for a new nuclear power plant.
In March 2010, Exelon applied for an ESP for its Victoria County, TX, site and withdrew the COL application for that project. PSEG Nuclear lodged an application for an ESP for a reactor at its Salem/Hope Creek site on the Delaware River in New Jersey in May 2010, and expects it to take three years to process.
Combined construction and operating licence
In 2003, the Department of Energy (DOE) called for combined construction and operating licence (COL) proposals under its Nuclear Power 2010 program on the basis that it would fund up to half the cost of any accepted. The COL program has two objectives:to encourage utilities to take the initiative in licence application, and to encourage reactor vendors to undertake detailed engineering and arrive at reliable cost estimates. For the first,DOE matching funds of up to about $50 million are available, and for the second, up to some $200 million per vendor, to be recouped from royalties.
Several industry consortia have been created for the purpose of preparing COL applications for new reactors. By mid-2009, COL applications for 26 new units at 17 sites had been submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A summary of submitted and expected applications is given in the Table above (New US nuclear power reactors), and further information is given in Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 3: COL Applications.
However, the only construction of new plants in the short termis in regulated markets, where costs can reliably berecovered.
Advance orders for heavy forgings
Several companies have ordered heavy forgings and other long lead time equipment for building new plants, in advance of specific plans or approvals. Some have even proceeded to full engineering,procurement and construction (EPC) agreements while the relevant COL applications are being processed, thus indicating a strong probability of actually building the plants concerned. These are indicated in the above Table and further details are given in Nuclear Power in the USA Appendix 3: COL Applications.
The Energy Policy Act of 2005 provided financial incentives for the construction of advanced nuclear plants. The incentives include a 2.1 cents/kWh tax credit for the first 6,000 MWe of capacity in the first eight years of operation, and federal loan guarantees for the project cost. After putting this program in place in 2008, the DOE received 19 applications for 14 plants involving 21 reactors.The total amount of guarantees requested is $122 billion, but only$18.5 billion has been authorized for the program. In light of the interest shown, industry has asked that the limit on total guarantees be raised to $100 billion.
For further discussion see information page on US Nuclear Power Policy.
Reactors under construction and planned, or which have been'planned'
Watts Bar 2
While the focus is on new technology, TVA undertook a detailed feasibility study which led to its decision in 2007 to complete unit 2 of its Watts Bar nuclear power plant in Tennessee. The 1177 MWe reactor was expected to start up in October 2012 and come online in 2013 at a cost of about $2.5 billion, but this schedule has slipped substantially, so that TVA now expects it on line in December 2015, with major budget overrun possibly to $4.5 billion.Construction had been suspended in 1985 when 80% complete and (after parts were cannibalized to reduce that figure to 61%) resumed in October 2007 under a still-valid permit, and in April 2012 was 70% complete. Its twin, unit 1, started operation in 1996. Completing Watts Bar 2 utilizes an existing asset, thus saving time and cost relative to alternatives for new base-load capacity. It was expected to provide power at 4.4 ¢/kWh, 20-25% less than coal-fired or new nuclear alternatives and 43% less than natural gas. It is a regulated plant, with guaranteed cost recovery.
TVA also has a pair of uncompleted 1213 MWe PWR reactors: Bellefonte 1 & 2. Construction on these units was abandoned in 1988 after $2.5 billion had been spent and unit 1 largely (88%)completed and unit 2 about 58% completed. In February 2009, the NRC reinstated the construction permits for these (and later the status of the reactors classified as 'deferred'). Today unit 1 is considered about 55% complete due to the transfer or sale of many components and the need to upgrade or replace others, such as instrument and control system, reactor pressure vessel, steam generators and main condenser tubing. In August 2011 TVA decided to complete unit 1 at a cost of about $4.9 billion rather than building a new AP1000 reactor as unit 3 (see Appendix 3: COL Applications).
In August 2010, TVA had committed to spending $248 million to September 2011 towards that 8 and an engineering contract was awarded to Areva SA in October 2010 for work on unit 1, including engineering, licensing and procurement of long-lead materials in support of a possible start-up date in the 2018-19 timeframe. Following TVA's decision to proceed, it includes construction and component replacement work on the plant's nuclear systems plus fuel design and fabrication. Areva will also supply a digital reactor instrumentation and control (I&C) system, a completely modernized control room and plant simulator for personnel training. Areva contracts amount to some $1 billion. TVA has asked the NRC to defer consideration of its COL for units 3 & 4. Heavy construction will start when Watts Bar 2 is complete. No decision has been made on completing unit 2. It is a regulated plant, with guaranteed cost recovery.
Vogtle 3 & 4
Site works are largely complete in preparation for two 1200 MWe Westinghouse AP1000 reactors. Some of the reactor steelwork is on site, the steel reinforcing (rebar) for the base mat is largely complete, and assembly and welding of unit 3's containment vessel bottom head is complete. In April 2008, Georgia Power signed an EPC contract with Westinghouse and The Shaw Group consortium. JSW has shipped forged components to Doosan for fabrication. Southern Nuclear has been awarded government loan guarantees, and the COL was issued by NRC in February. Construction start (first concrete) was delayed to late 2012, and then to March 2013, after NRC issued a licence amendment allowing use of a higher-strength concrete that permits the company to pour the foundation of the new reactors without making additional modifications to reinforcing steel bar. At that point ten million working hours had been invested on the site. Shaw has agreed with China's State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) to deploy engineers with experience in building China's AP1000 units to provide technical support. Following early delays, construction started in March 2013 and the units are expected on line in mid 2017 and mid 2018. It is a regulated plant, with guaranteed cost recovery.
Georgia Power as 45.7% owner reduced its earlier cost estimate for building its share of the new plant from $6.4 billion to $6.1 billion as a result of being able to recover financing costs from customers during construction, but this increased to $6.2 billion in 2012 due to delays. Over the life of the plant, the utility's customers will save about $1 billion through federal loan guarantees, production tax credits and the early recovery of financing costs in the rate base. The Georgia Public Service Commission in February 2013 approved Georgia Power's costs for the project and said that the project "remains more economically viable than any other [energy] resource, including a natural gas-fired alternative."
The total cost of the project is expected to be $14 billion. Minority equity in the project is held by Oglethorpe Power (30%), MEAG Power (22.7%) and Dalton city (1.6%).
Summer 2 & 3
Site works are well advanced for two 1200 MWe Westinghouse AP1000 reactors. In May 2008, South Carolina Electricity & Gas(SCANA subsidiary) and Santee Cooper signed an EPC contract with Westinghouse and the Shaw Group consortium. In September 2011 SCEG was starting to assemble the containment vessel for the first unit(43 mm thick, from Chicago Bridge & Iron) and was starting construction on the four low-profile forced-draft cooling towers.The total forecast cost of $9.8 billion includes inflation and owners' costs for site preparation, contingencies and project financing, though the last has been reduced and the total estimatedin April 2012 was $9.2 billion. The COL was issued by the NRC at the end of March 2012, and construction commenced in March 2013, with first main concrete. Reactor pressure vessels and steam generators will come from Doosan in South Korea. A crane capable of lifting 6800 tonnes is installed on site, though the heaviest component 1550t. The units are expected to enter commercial operation in 2017 and 2018. SCEG's loan guarantee application was accepted by DOE and the project was short-listed in May 2009. It is a regulated plant, with guaranteed cost recovery.
Levy County, Florida
Site works have started for two 1200 MWe Westinghouse AP1000 reactors on a greenfield site in Florida, and to January 2012 some$860 million had been spent on site works. The company expects to have spent about $1 billion on the design, acquisition of heavy equipment and site works by the time it secures NRC approval in 2013. In September 2008, Progress Energy Florida signed an EPC contract with Westinghouse and The Shaw Group consortium. The contract is for $7.65 billion ($3462/kWe), of an overall project cost of about $14 billion. A final decision to build will be made when the NRC issues a licence for the project - the COL review is due to be complete about mid 2013. Latest estimated operational dates are 2024-25, the delay being due to "lower-than-projected customer demand, the lingering economic slowdown, uncertainty regarding potential carbon regulation and current, low natural gas prices". The revised cost is $19 - 24 billion. It is a regulated plant, with guaranteed cost recovery. This is now a Duke Energy project.
NextEra Energy subsidiary Florida Power & Light applied in June 2009 for a COL for two Westinghouse AP1000 reactors at Turkey Point in Florida where two 693 MWe PWR units (3 & 4) are operating and due for 109 MWe uprates in 2012-13. The NRC safety review is scheduled to be completed late in 2013, and the environmental review in 2014.
Duke Energy lodged a COL in December 2007 for two Westinghouse AP1000 units for its William States Lee III plant at a new site near Charlotte in Cherokee County, South Carolina. The company is seeking a loan guarantee and is considering regional partnerships to build the plant, though it has not yet committed to proceed. The environmental review for NRC is due to be completed early in 2013,and the first unit could be on line in 2021. Duke spent $320 million on licensing, planning and pre-construction activities for the plant to the end of 2012.
Harris 2 & 3
Progress Energy lodged a COL application for two AP1000 units at its Shearon Harris site at New Hill in North Carolina in February 2008. This was proceeding towards granting at the end of 2014.Expansion of the plant would require raising the water level of Harris Lake by 6 metres, and relying on the Cape Fear River as backup cooling water. However, in May 2013 Duke Energy (which had taken over Progress) asked NRC to suspend the COL review due to projected electricity demand being low for next 15 years.
Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) has set up B&W Modular NuclearEnergy LLC to market the mPower small modular reactor design of125-180 MWe. The company intends to apply for design certificationin 2013, and a COL in 2012 for TVA's Clinch River site, followed byconstruction start in 2015 and operation of the first unit in 2020.As well as TVA, First Energy and Oglethorpe Power are involved withthe proposal.
Luminant plans to use two US-APWR units for its merchant plant in Texas, and in May 2011 remained positive about the prospects for these by 2109-20. WNA lists the plant as "proposed" pending progress with design certification and COLs. Design certification and COL are scheduled late in 2013. In May 2011 the NRC concluded that there are no environmental considerations that would hinder the project. Luminant's loan guarantee application was accepted by DOE and it was understood that this was the first alternative to the four short-listed projects, two of which are now not proceeding for the time being.
Calvert Cliffs 3
Unistar, now owned by EdF, plans to build a 1710 MWe Areva US-EPR alongside Constellation's units 1 & 2, as a merchant plant. The NRC design certification for US-EPR is due early in 2013, but the COL - originally scheduled in mid 2013 - will require a new US partner for the project. At the end of August 2012 the NRC said that it would terminate the COL application in 60 days if Unistar did not have majority US ownership by then, and it did so. In May 2011 the NRC concluded that there are no environmental considerations that would preclude issuing the COL for construction and operation of the proposed US-EPR at the site. The NRC was now completing the safety evaluation. Unistar's loan guarantee application was accepted by DOE and the project was short-listed in May 2009.
In the light of equity developments WNA has moved the project from planned back to "proposed". Exelon, merging with Constellation (owner of units 1 & 2 there, and in which EdF has 49.9% equity) said in November 2011 that with the advent of shale gas, a new nuclear plant at Calvert Cliffs was "utterly uneconomic"by a factor about two.
Calvert Cliffs 3 will have a closed-loop cooling system using asingle hybrid mechanical draft cooling tower, giving it a muchlarger footprint than units 1 & 2 together. It will also have areverse osmosis desalination plant for potable water, producing4700 m3/day.
South Texas Project 3 & 4
This is envisaged as a merchant plant with two 1356 MWe Advanced Boiling Water Reactorsm.NRG Energy already operates two reactors at the site, and works were under way preparing for the new units. The project is owned 92.375% by Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA), and 7.625% by CPS Energy of San Antonio. Toshiba America Nuclear Energy holds 12%of NINA with NRG Energy 88%, but following NRG's withdrawal from STP 3&4, Toshiba has fully funded NINA to continue licensing. The COL review by the NRC was due to be completed late in 2011, and the units were expected on line in 2016 and 2017, but in late 2011 the NRC notified NINA that the corporation did not meet the foreign ownership requirements and would therefore be ineligible to receive a licence; however NINA subsequently filed revisions to its COL application and a "negation action plan" to address the issue. In April 2013 the NRC "determined that NINA and its wholly owned subsidiaries … continue to be under foreign ownership, control, or domination and do not meet the requirements … of the Atomic Energy Act or the requirements of (federal regulations)." NINA responded by saying it would continue “to move forward on the technical portion of the permit and other activities necessary to obtain the license. This action by NRC is a step in the process necessary to reach a final resolution of the foreign ownership issue." It expected that the NRC decision would be reviewed by the NRC Atomic Safety Licensing Board (ASLB).
NINA awarded the EPC contract to Shaw Group and Toshiba AmericaNuclear Energy in November 2010. One reactor pressure vessel was ordered from IHI in May 2010, and JSW has already shippedother components.
However, based largely on low natural gas prices in Texas compounded by the Fukushima accident, in April 2011. NRG decided to pull out of the project and write off its $331 million investment in it. Toshiba had spent $150 million and has agreed to persevere with the project. It is assumed that Tepco will not be in a position to maintain any involvement. In the light of developments WNA has moved the project from planned back to"proposed".
North Anna 3
In December 2010, Dominion announced that it had agreed with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries to continue pre-construction efforts for this US-APWR unit, but Dominion also says it will not make a decision to build it until it gets the COL, and hence it remains "proposed" in WNA reckoning. In April 2013 Dominion announced that it had reverted to the ESBWR as preferred technology (as originally selected in 2005), and would amend its COL application accordingly, now expecting approval in 2015. The US-APWR design certification and plant COL were scheduled in late 2013. Dominion suggests start-up in 2022 if it proceeds. It is a regulated plant,with guaranteed cost recovery.
This is a reference unit for GE-H's ESBWR design, proposed by Detroit Edison in Michigan, but the company has not yet committed to proceeding. A COL application was made in 2008 and environmental approval was received in January 2013. The safety evaluation is not expected before full design certification for the ESBWR
Other new capacity
TVA upgraded and restarted Browns Ferry 1 in May 2007. The unit had originally commenced commercial operation in 1974 but all three Browns Ferry reactors were shut down in 1985 to address management and operational concerns. Units 2 and 3 were returned to service in 1991 and 1995, respectively. The five-year refurbishment program of unit 1 also increased its power to 1,155 MWe, similar to the newer units 2 & 3.
In April 2010, Areva signed an agreement with Fresno Nuclear Energy Group for a clean-energy park near Fresno in California,including a 1600 MWe EPR and concentrated solar power plant.Possible locations are being investigated.
Other planned or proposed new US nuclear capacity is described more fully in Appendix 3 on COL Applications.
Future nuclear reactor designs
After 20 years of steady decline, government R&D funding for nuclear energy is being revived with the objective of rebuilding US leadership in nuclear technology.
In an effort that brings together government research laboratories, industry and academe, the Federal government has significantly stepped up R&D spending for future plants that improve or go well beyond current designs. There has been particular attention to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to develop a GenerationIV high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, which would be part of a system that would produce both electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. The DOE has stated that its goal is to have a pilot plant ready at its Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by 2021.The total development cost has been estimated at $2 billion. See also information page on US Nuclear Power Policy.
Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS), which manages the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina on behalf of the DOE,has proposed a demonstration complex with prototype or demonstration models of up to 15 small reactors (up to 300 MWe, but mostly smaller). Hyperion has signed an agreement to build the first, and SRNS has approached several other small-reactor developers, including General Atomics (re GT-MHR or EM2), GE Hitachi (re PRISM) and Terrapower (see section on HyperionPower Module in the information page on Small Nuclear Power Reactors). It is understood that the DOE has the authority to build and operate such small reactors if they are not supplying electricity to the grid.
Appendix 1: US Operating Nuclear Reactors
Appendix 2: Power Plant Purchases
Appendix 3: COL Applications
Related information pages
US Nuclear Power Policy
US Nuclear Fuel Cycle
a. The first nuclear reactor in the world to produce electricity(albeit a trivial amount) was the small Experimental BreederReactor (EBR-1) in Idaho, which started up in December 1951. In1953, President Eisenhower proposed his Atoms forPeaceprogram, which reoriented significant research efforttowards electricity generation and set the course for civil nuclearenergy development in the USA. The Mark 1 naval reactor of 1953 ledto the US Atomic Energy Commission building the 60 MWe Shippingportdemonstration PWR reactor in Pennsylvania, which started up in 1957and operated until 1982. [Back]
b. Fort St. Vrain in Colorado was a 330 MWe high-temperaturegas-cooled reactor (HTGR) operating 1976-89. The technology wasdeveloped from an earlier 40 MWe HTGR at Peach Bottom,Pennsylvania, which operated from 1967 to 1974. [Back]
c. To the end of September 2010, the Nuclear RegulatoryCommission (NRC) had approved 135 power uprates totalling 5810 MWe(not including capacity recapture uprates for provisional operatinglicence plants). A further 10 applications for power upratestotaling 1125 MWe were under review. In addition, the NRC said thatit expected to receive 40 power uprate applications by 2014. Ifapproved and implemented, these uprates would add 2400 MWe.Information on power uprates is available on the NRC website (www.nrc.gov/reactors/operating/licensing/power-uprates.html)[Back]
d. Contra to uprates, occasionally plantsinstall equipment such as new cooling towers which increasesinternal power consumption, and therefore reduces net powerslightly (without changing gross power). There is also sometimes a2-3% difference between summer and winter power, due to coolerambient temperatures in winter increasing thermal efficiency. [Back]
e. An asterisk (*) denotes reference COLfor reactor type. EPC = Engineering, procurement and constructionagreement. Merchant plants are without regulated cost recovery.'Planned' status shows a higher level of commitment - such as anorder for large forgings or an EPC contract - than 'Proposed'status. [Back]
f. Construction of Watts Bar 2 was suspended in 1985 and resumedin 2007. In July 2008, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued anorder extending the Watts Bar Unit 2 construction permit completiondate to 31 March 2013. TVA still requires an operating licence forthe reactor. [Back]
g. The site chosen by the NuStart Energy Development consortiumfor the reference COL application for the AP1000 was originallyTVA's Bellefonte. However, NuStart later decided to transfer theAP1000 reference COL application to Vogtle on the grounds that theVogtle application had "specific near-term construction plans." InMay 2009, NuStart announced that it was "consulting with theNuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy to develop aprocess for transferring the reference combined construction andoperating licence application from TVA's Bellefonte nuclear site toSouthern Nuclear's Vogtle Electric Generating Plant."1 [Back]
h. A COL application for two proposedAP1000 units as units 3 and 4 at TVA's Bellefonte site wassubmitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in October 2007.This COL application was originally the reference COL applicationfor the AP1000 design but the reference application is beingtransferred to Vogtle (see Note g above). The site also has twounfinished 1,213 MWe PWRs (unit 1 being about 88% complete and unit2 about 58% complete) and TVA has been considering all options forthe site, including the completion of units 1&2.In May 2010 theTVA staff identified completion of unit 1 as the best option forthe site, and in August 2011 the TVA Board decided to complete unit1.2 [Back]
i. Dominion's North Anna COL application referenced the ESBWR, but in March 2009 it issued a new request for proposals from reactor vendors and in May 2010 it selected the Mitsubishi US-APWR. Then in April 2013 it reverted to the ESBWR, and agreed on an EPC contract for it with GEH and Fluor, though this will not be signed unless it decides to proceed. The COL review by NRC in now expected to be complete in 2015.
The COL reviews of Entergy's applications for Grand Gulf and RiverBend, along with the review of Exelon's application for the Victoria County site were suspended by the NRC, following the decisions by Entergy and Exelon to review their initial reactor design choice of the ÉSBWR. Exelon had initially proposed two ESBWR units for its Victoria County site but, early in 2009, switched to the ABWR design, to be built by GE-Hitachi. Shortly afterwards, citing adverse economic conditions, Exelon withdrew its COL application and instead said it would submit an early site permit application in late 2009/early 2010. [Back]
j. AmerenUE announced in April 2009 that it was suspending itsefforts to build a new unit and in June 2009 the company requestedthe Nuclear Regulatory Commission to suspend all review activitiesrelating to the Callaway 2 COL application. However, in April2012 Ameren Missouri set out seek DOE support for the first of fiveWestinghouse SMR units at Callaway. [Back]
k. The ABWR design that has NRCcertification is the GE-Hitachi design, some aspects of which areproprietary to GE-Hitachi. While the licence application for thefirst new ABWRs to be announced for the USA - at the South TexasProject (STP) - references the certified GE-Hitachi design, Toshibawas selected as the main contractor to build the units. In November2010, Toshiba submitted an application to renew the design, whichincludes revisions to bring the certified design in line with theSTP units (see Note m below). [Back]
l. The NRC had approved full design certification for theWestinghouse AP1000 in 2005 and issued a final rule certifying thedesign in January 2006. However, in May 2007, Westinghousesubmitted an application to amend the AP1000 final designcertification rule. The NRC expects a final safety evaluationreport for the amendment to be issued late in 2010. [Back]
m. Since the decision to go ahead withSouth Texas Project (STP) units 3& 4 was first announced, therehave been a number of developments. The combined construction andoperating licence (COL) application was prepared by STP NuclearOperating Company (STPNOC) together with GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energyand Bechtel and submitted in September 2007.3Justbefore submittal of the COL application, NRG Energy and STPNOCsigned a project services agreement with Toshiba to support thedesign, engineering, construction and procurement of the units.Fluor was then enrolled to support Toshiba4.In November 2010, Nuclear Innovation North America LLC (NINA, thenuclear development company jointly owned by NRG Energy andToshiba) announced that it had awarded the engineering, procurementand construction (EPC) contract to a "restructured EPC consortium"of Toshiba's US subsidiary Toshiba America Nuclear EnergyCorporation (TANE) and The Shaw Group5.
In the meantime, the reactor technology has moved from beingbased on the GE design certified by the US Nuclear RegulatoryCommission in 1997. The design had to be renewed by 2012 and arenewal application by Toshiba was submitted in November 2010.6 Therenewal application includes revisions in accordance with the STPdesign. Hence, the STP reactors are now considered to be ToshibaABWRs, whereas the original intention was to use the 1997 certifieddesign "with only a limited number of changes to enhance safety andconstruction schedules," with these changes incorporated into theCOL application7.[Back]
1. NuStart Members Step Toward COL Completion,NuStart Update (1 May 2009) [Back]
2. TVA to Update Environmental Impacts Evaluation forNuclear Unit at Bellefonte Site, TVA news release (7 August2009). In April 2011 this was deferred further pending analysis ofthe Fukushima accident. [Back]
3. NRG Energy Submits Application for New 2,700Megawatt Nuclear Plant in South Texas, NRG Energy news release(24 September 2007) [Back]
4. Contractors in flux for South Texas Project,World Nuclear News (20 August 2007) [Back]
5. NINA Announces Newly Developed EPC Consortium toAdvance South Texas Project, Nuclear Innovation North Americanews release (29 November 2010) [Back]
6. Toshiba works on ABWR certification, WorldNuclear News (4 November 2010) [Back]
7. NRG Forms Company to Develop Advanced BoilingWater Reactor Nuclear Power Projects in North America, NRGEnergy news release (25 March 2008) [Back]
8. TVA Chief Executive Officer Outlines TVA's Visionand Strategy for Future Operations, TVA news release (20 August2010) [Back]
Based originally on NAC Emerging Issues, May-June & Sept2000
Bruce Lacy, Contract Plant Operators: Stepping Stone to NewNuclear Investment in a Liberalized Electric EnergyMarket WNA Symposium (September 2002)
New Reactor Designs, Energy InformationAdministration of the U.S. Department of Energy (August2003)
US Consortia: inching towards new nukes, NUKEM MarketReport (July 2004)
Frank L. 'Skip' Bowman, Evolving To Meet Tomorrow's Challenges, WorldNuclear Fuel Cycle Conference, San Antonio, Texas (April 2005)