Countries O-S


Pakistan has a small nuclear power program, with 725 MWe capacity, but is increasing this substantially with new reactors under construction. Because Pakistan is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons program, it is largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which hinders its development of civil nuclear energy.


Poland plans to have nuclear power from about 2025 as part of a diverse energy portfolio, moving it away from heavy dependence on coal and imported gas. The nuclear plant will be a joint venture of three utilities and a copper miner, all state-owned.



Romania has two nuclear reactors generating almost 20 percent of its electricity. Romania's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1996. Its second started up in May 2007. Plans are well advanced for completing two more units, but finance is lacking.

Russia: Nuclear Fuel Cycle

A major increase in uranium mine production is planned. There is increasing international involvement in parts of Russia's fuel cycle. Exports are a major Russian policy and economic objective.


Russia: Nuclear Power

Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for an expanded role of nuclear energy, including development of new reactor technology. Exports of nuclear goods and services are a major Russian policy and economic objective.

Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia plans to construct 16 nuclear power reactors over the next 20 years at a cost of more than $80 billion. It projects 17 GWe of nuclear capacity by 2032 to provide one sixth of the power then, along with over 40 GWe of solar capacity.


Slovakia has four nuclear reactors generating half of its electricity and two more under construction. Slovakia's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1972.


Slovenia has shared a nuclear power reactor with Croatia since 1981. It has further capacity under consideration.

South Africa

South Africa has two nuclear reactors generating 5% of its electricity. South Africa's first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1984. Government commitment to the future of nuclear energy is strong, with firm plans for further 9600 MWe in the next decade, but financial constraints are severe.

South Korea

South Korea is set to become a major world nuclear energy country, exporting technology. It won a contract to supply four nuclear reactors to UAE, and these are under construction. Today 25 reactors provide one-third of South Korea's electricity from 23 GWe of plant.


Spain has eight nuclear reactors generating a fifth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1968. There are plans for renewed uranium mining. Government commitment to nuclear energy has been uncertain, but has firmed up recently.


Sweden has nine operating nuclear power reactors providing about 40% of its electricity. Sweden has a tax discriminating against nuclear power – now about 0.67 Euro cents/kWh, which makes up about one-third of the operating cost of nuclear power.


Switzerland has five nuclear reactors generating 40% of its electricity. Two large new units were planned. However, in June 2011 parliament resolved not to replace any reactors, and hence to phase out nuclear power by 2034, despite strong public support.